This course aims to clarify two perspectives: philosophy and science. The course explains the harmony which should exist between the vision proper to philosophy and each experimental science. It will offer the epistemological frame work needed to link science and philosophy with regard to their autonomy and specificity. Starting with an historical overview, we will focus on the development of classical science, the scientific revolution and post-Newtonian thinking with reference to Hume, his criticism of causal necessity and the Kantian response. Particular focus will be devoted to the development and nature of the scientific method from a modern deterministic approach to the current approach which allows for indeterminism. The course will conclude with a philosophical reflection on scientific methodology.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Dahlstrom, Nature and Scientific Method, Washington D.C. Catholic University of America, 1991;J. Dougherty, The Nature of Scientific Explanation, Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America, 2013; D. Gillies, Philosophy of Science, in the 20th Century: Four Central Themes, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1993; E. Grant, The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996; T. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 1996 (3rd ed.); K. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Hutchinson, 1959; C. Singer, A Short History of Scientific Ideas to the 19th Century, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1959. P. Whitfield, Landmarks in Western Science: from Prehistory to the Atomic Age, New York: Routledge, 1999.