We will study the origins of the modern conception of the subject. This course aims at introducing the students to an understanding of some central elements of modernity as they appear in the works of its founding philosophers. 1. Rationalism: Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz. 2. British and Scottish realism and empiricism: Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume. 3. Rousseau. 4. Criticism: Kant.
René Descartes, Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, (fourth Edition), translated by Donald A. Cress, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1998. Baruch Spinoza, Ethics with The Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect and Selected Letters, translated by Samuel Shirley, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1992. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Penguin Classics, 1982. John Locke, The second treatise on civil government, edited by C. B. MacPherson, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1980. George Berkeley, A Treatise Concerning The Principles Of Human Knowledge, edited by Kenneth Winkler, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1982. David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (second edition), with Hume's Abstract of A Treatise of Human Nature and A Letter from a Gentleman to His Friend in Edinburgh, edited by Eric Steinberg, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1993.